From the aspect of health protection it is essential for the normal functioning of our body and for chemo—prevention to provide chemical substances not produced by our body. The major part of the current functional waters provide mainly intake of elements (calcium, magnesium, iron etc.) or trace elements (iodine, selenium, boron, manganese etc.). Elements with a daily need of more than 250 mg, (P, Ca, Mg, P, S, K etc.) and trace elements with a daily need of less than 20 mg (e.g. Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I etc.) are taken in by food or drinking water. The biological utilization in the required quantity is essential for the body and not the quantity. In most cases water provides the optimal utilization!
The basis of reliable, healthy and added functional water is microbiologically suitable mineral water with optimal composition. Functional waters with positive health protecting effect can be obtained by a well-aimed treatment and adding. It is especially true if alkaline or acidic waters rich in stabilized oxygen obtained by the proper electric treatment are added by ingredients that are needed for the normal end healthy functioning of our body or for the influencing of pathological states. From this point of view based on the current scientific results two essential functional trace elements influencing and strengthening their effect mutually are IODINE and SELENIUM.
Iodine and selenium are good examples as essential trace elements for supplementing deficiencies and preventing thyroid hyperactivity or underfunction and several other diseases.
Iodine is an essential element for human life that fact was realized at the end of 1800s and it was tried/is tried to supplement it by adding iodine to common salt (that means adding potassium iodide) and to reduce iodine deficiency. Such added iodine is a iodine ion with negative charge existing as element (I-). The body can process and utilize a small part of this iodine in a very complicated process and the remaining part is stored in the body. There is another form of iodine with positive charge that is less-known and shows excellent physiological effects. It is processed by the body definitely simpler and there is not a complicated processing and the remaining part is not stored but removed with excrement or urine.
The most important part of iodine is the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxin (a molecule containing T4 iodine atom) and the tri-iodine thyronine (T3) generated by extracting iodine. The iodine taken with food is delivered with the blood as iodide ion into the thyroid. (Perchlorate ion, which is generated and is present in waters by chlorination, inhibits the getting in and biological utilization of iodine!) In the thyroid iodine ion is oxidized by peroxidase enzymes to elementary iodine (I) that builds in the tyrosyl side chains of thyreoglobulin protein and thyroxin (T4) then triiodine thyronine (T3) are generated. These are removed from thyreoglobulin and getting into bloodstream become units with hormone effect. T4 mainly gets in blood serum to „thyroxin-binding-globulin” protein, while T3 gets to tissues bound to so-called prealbumin fraction and have physiological effects.
Hypophysis delivers a hormone the so-called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) into blood that helps and stimulates the functioning of thyroid and enhanced intake of iodine from blood in other words it promotes the synthesis of T4 hormone. In case of TSH deficiency hormone production virtually stops. Iodine thyronine deiodine enzyme with selenium content produces active T3 from T4 by extracting iodine. This enzyme cannot work if there is no selenium intake. This is the most important explanation for the fact that iodine an selenium are to be supplemented jointly. The essential hormone effect is enhancing metabolism of tissues that can be measured well with increasing oxygen intake. That explains the beneficial physiological effects of waters with iodine/selenium content and rich in stabilized oxygen!
In case of iodine deficiency hypothyreosis of thyroid appears when hormone production/removing is reduced, which results in reducing basic metabolism resulting in growth and mental backwardness.
Hyperthyreosis leads to increased basal metabolism and the symptom thereof is increased heart rate. Thyroid hormones have an essential part in the metabolism of thyroid and breast tissues, bone development of limbs and cerebral function. A HYPOTHYREOSIS mainly due to improper intake of iodine leads to the decrease of T3, T4 production resulting in developing/influencing several diseases or growth disturbances and mental backwardness (cretinism) or abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland called struma. HIYPERTHYREOSIS may lead to various diseases (e.g. abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland /struma/, Bazedow disease , heart function problems, enhanced irritation). Hypothyreosis is of great importance for embryos or babies as children’s mental abilities are greatly influenced by iodine deficiency of mothers. Iodine deficiency of children or adults may lead to thyroid underfunction or overproduction, chronicle fatigue, obesity, increased sensitivity of cold, loss of hair, sleep disorders, depression, children’s hyperactivity, muscle/joint pains, menstruation disturbances, constipation, sight, hearing or speak problems. All these are symptoms of thyroid diseases. Iodine deficiency has a part in developing diabetes. Struma can be developed due to hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Realizing and improving iodine deficiency (It can be determined based on the test of the first morning urine whether the body removes iodine or not.) are of great importance for pregnant women and nursing mothers! Extra intake of iodine is also harmful for our body as autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity reactions, or disturbances of thyroid hormone production (struma or thyroid gland cancer) may develop. In addition to iodine and selenium zinc, vitamin E and D or plant antioxidants and enzyme antioxidant systems of the body (such as glutathione peroxidase enzyme) are essential for the optimal thyroid function.
Elementary iodine as any other elements can be toxic depending on doses. Extra intake of iodine can cause both hypo or hyperthyroidism. Utilized intake of iodine should be 250-300 µg/day for men and 190-220 µg/day for women. Upper limit values of iodine intake are as follows (µg/day):
1-3 years 900
4-8 years 300
9-13 years 600
14-18 years 900
>19 years 1100
pregnant women and nursing mothers (14-19 years) 900
>19 év 1100
For autoimmune thyroid diseases (e.g. Basedow, Grave or Hashimoto diseases) extra intake of iodine can be harmful and careful approach is needed for iodine intake in such cases intake of iodine is to be checked after consultation with the attending physician .
Recommended daily intake (RDA) values of iodine (µg/day)
0-6 months 110
7-12 months 130
1-8 years 90
9-13 years 120
14-18 years 150
>19 years 150
pregnant women 220
nursing mothers 290
People with iodine deficiency should pay attention to their diet as certain food e.g. soya, cruciferous vegetables (cabbage species) may reduce intake of iodine and iodine utilization. However, dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheeses, eggs, strawberries, whole grain cereals) are appropriate foodstuffs as source of iodine.
Selenium is the main antioxidant trace mineral (you can call it the street cleaner of the body). Several diseases can develop due to selenium deficiency (e.g. asthma, heart muscle problems, joint inflammation, psoriasis, immune system problems, colorectal breast esophagus tumors, uterus cyst, men’s infertility, sclerosis multiplex, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease etc.). Selenium is an essential element of the enzymes of our antioxidant protection system (e.g. glutathione peroxidase (GSPx), thioredoxin reductase (TRx)) and it is the best antioxidant of our body (anti peroxidase). Selenium therefore protects our cells against oxidative stress, reduces the effects of oxidative stress, increase thyroid hormone production and reduces joint inflammation. It is important to be aware of the fact that steroid type anti-inflammatory (e.g. cortisol, prednisolone etc.),copper and iron deficiency reduce the selenium level of the body in other words selenium should be supplemented in such cases.
Supplementation of selenium is important for virus infections. Selenium is essential for the function of estrogen sulfotransferase enzyme involved in the estrogen decomposition. In case of selenium deficiency the body cannot perform its task, estrogen level increases, which can cause breast cancer and can lead to the decrease of thyroid gland functions. Selenium is essential for testosterone production and selenium deficiency can cause loss of hair, osteoarthritis or it can cause men’s infertility. In addition, selenium deficiency can cause anemia, muscle pains or liver cirrhosis.
Selenium has a part in diabetes prevention but diabetic patients should consult their physician and they should be careful with supplementation of selenium.
Selenium has an active part in the efficient function of T-cells of the immune system (e.g. hepatitis B and C prevention). A low selenium level can cause virus infections and it decreases testosterone synthesis for men in other words it can lead to men’s infertility. A low selenium level can also be apparent in cerebral function e.g. in the development of Alzheimer disease. It can decrease risk of heart and circulatory system diseases or tumors (breast, prostate or liver tumors).
Selenium can be supplemented by adding organic (e.g. selenocysteine or selenomethionine) or inorganic (sodium selenite or sodium selenate) substances to food. (Remark: permanent use of organic selenium forms can be toxic as inorganic ones.) Selenium has its benefits together with appropriate iodine, vitamin D and E or zinc level. Selenium deficiency increases in case of special diets or full parenteral nutrition and selenium is to be supplements in these cases.
It is important to know that arsenic (arsenic drinking waters) decreases the selenium level of the body. Selenium synergizes with sulfur and binds heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) and arsenic decreasing toxic effect of these elements. Supplementation of selenium is required for people drinking water with high arsenic content as it protects our health by enhancing GPx and glutathione (GSH) activity or level.
Daily optimal selenium intake: 1 µg/body weight kg.
Upper selenium intake limit value (UL) is 400 µg/ day.
Recommended daily intake limit values (RDA, AI, µg/ body weightkg)
0-6 months 15
6-12 months 20
1-3 years 20
4-8 years 30
9-13 years 40
>14 years 50-60
pregnant women 60
nursing mothers 70
Iodine and selenium have their optimal health protecting effect jointly (they protect against effects of electromagnetic/radioactive radiation damaging health more efficiently than separately). Iodine and selenium inhibit against Candida albicans mainly in an environment rich in oxygen jointly. They influence their effects mutually selenium deficiency can induce iodine deficiency and vice versa or extra iodine can result in selenium deficiency, which decreases the health protecting effects of selenoenzymes. Iodine and selenium have their joint protection effect for the prevention of several cancer types (breast, thyroid, prostate or colorectal cancer). Our body cannot store iodine and selenium but iron so they are to be supplemented but jointly: when both trace elements are supplemented jointly in an appropriate ratio the prevention against thyroid over- and underfunction and the treatment pf the symptoms thereof are both promoted.
We cannot take in the quantity of iodine and selenium required for the normal function of our body with food so the biological utilization is greatly influenced by our state of health. Health conscience and preventive nutrition and way of life can require/requires the joint supplementation of selenium and iodine. The effect of iodine and selenium can be effective first of all in an appropriate environment and for a right way of life. The optimal forms of supplementation thereof are functional waters and drinks.
Organic water confirmation: